Ethics of digital, data-based nudges: The need for responsible innovation.
Claudia Luger-Bazinger, Rodessa May Marquez, Carlotta Harms, Martin Loidl, Dana Kaziyeva, Veronika Hornung-Prähauser (2022): Ethics of digital, data-based nudges: The need for responsible innovation. In: XXXIII ISPIM Innovation Conference "Innovating in a Digital World", Copenhagen, Denmark, 5 June 5-8 2022: LUT Scientific and Expertise Publications: ISBN 978-952-335-694-8.
Digital, data-based nudging is seen as an innovative method for influencing behaviour without threat or banning options. However, concerns have been expressed that it is a paternalistic way of manipulating people into behaviour that even taps into subconscious and automatic decision-making. In light of tailoring nudges with big data for personalisation for added effectiveness, ethical problems about privacy of personal data arise. In our contribution, we address these challenges within the framework of responsible innovation. For the field of sustainable mobility, we demonstrate how responsible digital nudges can be designed by incorporating reflexivity and inclusion. We discuss how ethical implications as well as issues of data privacy and use of personal data can be reflected in the design process of data-based nudges, and present results from co-creation workshops that were used to get feedback, improvement and new ideas for nudges. Finally, we give recommendations for designing responsible digital, data-based nudges.